Check Important Topics, Latest Exam Pattern,


Candidates who aspire to pursue their career in commerce must check the UGC NET Commerce syllabus. Check out the latest UGC NET Commerce Syllabus and Exam Pattern here!

UGC NET Commerce Syllabus 2023: The UGC NET Commerce Syllabus 2023 is now available on the official website. Thus, candidates should download and check the latest UGC NET commerce syllabus to prepare for all the topics that can be asked in the exam. The syllabus of the UGC NET Commerce subject comprises two papers Paper A and Paper B. Paper A is common for all the subjects whereas Paper B comprises questions related to Commerce topics. 

The National Testing Agency (NTA) conducts UGC-NET twice a year to determine the eligibility of Indian nationals for ‘Assistant Professor’ as well as ‘Junior Research Fellowship and Assistant Professor’ in Indian Universities and Colleges.

A good understanding of commerce is crucial to maximizing the chances of scoring high on the exam. As per the previous year’s exam analysis, the overall difficulty level of the commerce question has been reported to be moderate level. 

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In this article, we have shared the UGC NET Commerce syllabus along with the exam pattern, preparation tips, and best books in detail.

UGC NET Commerce Syllabus 2023 PDF

Before applying, aspirants must download the official UGC NET Commerce syllabus PDF link shared below to understand topics and sub-topics important for the exam. Get the direct link to download the UGC NET commerce syllabus below:


UGC NET Commerce Syllabus 2023-Important Topics

The commerce Syllabus of the UGC NET is divided into two papers. The exam will be a computer-based test Paper 1 consists of 50 multiple-choice questions whereas Paper 2 comprises 100 multiple-choice questions. As per the UGC NET marking scheme, each question carries 2 marks and there shall be no negative marking for wrong answers. There shall be no break between both papers of the UGC NET Exam and the exam duration will be three-hour. Check the important NTA UGC NET Commerce syllabus 2023 topics below.

  • Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business
  • Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing
  • Unit 3: Business Economics
  • Unit 4: Business Finance
  • Unit 5: Business Statistics and Research Methods
  • Unit 6: Business Management and Human Resource Management
  • Unit 7: Banking and Financial Institutions
  • Unit 8: Marketing Management
  • Unit 9: Legal Aspects of Business
  • Unit 10: Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning

UGC NET Commerce Syllabus 2023- Unit Wise

The commerce syllabus for UGC NET is divided into ten units. The important topics covered in the UGC NET commerce syllabus are Accounting and Auditing, Business Finance, Marketing Management,  Business Management & Human Resource Management, etc. Let’s look at the unit-wise commerce syllabus for UGC NET in detail below:

Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business

  • Concepts and elements of business environment: Economic environment- Economic systems, Economic policies(Monetary and fiscal policies); Political environment
  • Role of government in business; Legal environment- Consumer Protection Act, FEMA; Socio-cultural factors and their influence on business; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
  • Scope and importance of international business; Globalization and its drivers; Modes of entry into international business
  • Theories of international trade; Government intervention in international trade; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; India’s foreign trade policy
  • Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Foreign portfolio investment (FPI); Types of FDI, Costs and benefits of FDI to home and host countries; Trends in FDI; India’s
  • FDI policy
  • Balance of payments (BOP): Importance and components of BOP
  • Regional Economic Integration: Levels of Regional Economic Integration; Trade creation and diversion effects; Regional Trade Agreements: European Union (EU), ASEAN, SAARC, NAFTA
  • International Economic Institutions: IMF, World Bank, UNCTAD
  • World Trade Organisation (WTO): Functions and objectives of WTO; Agriculture Agreement; GATS; TRIPS; TRIMS

Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing

  • Basic accounting principles; concepts and postulates
  • Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution, and Insolvency of partnership firms
  • Corporate Accounting: Issue, forfeiture, and reissue of shares; Liquidation of companies; Acquisition, merger, amalgamation, and reconstruction of companies
  • Holding company accounts
  • Cost and Management Accounting: Marginal costing and Break-even analysis; Standard costing; Budgetary control; Process costing; Activity Based Costing (ABC); Costing for decision-making; Life cycle costing, Target costing, Kaizen costing, and JIT
  • Financial Statements Analysis: Ratio analysis; Funds flow Analysis; Cash flow analysis
  • Human Resources Accounting; Inflation Accounting; Environmental Accounting
  • Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS
  • Auditing: Independent financial audit; Vouching; Verification ad valuation of assets and liabilities; Audit of financial statements and audit report; Cost audit
  • Recent Trends in Auditing: Management audit; Energy audit; Environment audit; Systems audit; Safety audit

Unit 3: Business Economics

  • Meaning and Scope of business economics
  • Objectives of business firms
  • Demand analysis: Law of demand; Elasticity of demand and its measurement; Relationship between AR and MR
  • Consumer behavior: Utility analysis; Indifference curve analysis
  • Law of Variable Proportions: Law of Returns to Scale
  • Theory of cost: Short-run and long-run cost curves
  • Price determination under different market forms: Perfect competition; Monopolistic competition; Oligopoly- Price leadership model; Monopoly; Price discrimination
  • Pricing strategies: Price skimming; Price penetration; Peak load pricing

Unit 4: Business Finance

  • Scope and sources of finance; Lease financing
  • Cost of capital and time value of money
  • Capital structure
  • Capital budgeting decisions: Conventional and scientific techniques of capital budgeting analysis
  • Working capital management; Dividend decision: Theories and Policies
  • Risk and return analysis; Asset securitization
  • International monetary system
  • Foreign exchange market; Exchange rate risk and hedging techniques
  • International financial markets and instruments: Euro currency; GDRs; ADRs
  • International arbitrage; Multinational capital budgeting

Unit 5: Business Statistics and Research Methods

  • Measures of central tendency
  • Measures of dispersion
  • Measures of skewness
  • Correlation and regression of two variables
  • Probability: Approaches to probability; Bayes’ theorem
  • Probability distributions: Binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions
  • Research: Concept and types; Research designs
  • Data: Collection and classification of data
  • Sampling and estimation: Concepts; Methods of sampling – probability and nonprobability methods; Sampling distribution; Central limit theorem; Standard error;
  • Statistical estimation
  • Hypothesis testing: z-test; t-test; ANOVA; Chi–square test; Mann-Whitney test (Utest); Kruskal-Wallis test (H-test); Rank correlation test
  • Report writing

Unit 6: Business Management and Human Resource Management

  • Principles and functions of management
  • Organization structure: Formal and informal organizations; Span of control
  • Responsibility and authority: Delegation of authority and decentralization
  • Motivation and leadership: Concept and theories
  • Corporate governance and business ethics
  • Human resource management: Concept, role and functions of HRM; Human resource planning; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Succession planning
  • Compensation management: Job evaluation; Incentives and fringe benefits
  • Performance appraisal including 360 degree performance appraisal
  • Collective bargaining and workers’ participation in management
  • Personality: Perception; Attitudes; Emotions; Group dynamics; Power and politics; Conflict and negotiation; Stress management
  • Organizational Culture: Organizational development and organizational change


Unit 7: Banking and Financial Institutions

  • Overview of Indian financial system
  • Types of banks: Commercial banks; Regional Rural Banks (RRBs); Foreign banks;Cooperative banks
  • Reserve Bank of India: Functions; Role and monetary policy management
  • Banking sector reforms in India: Basel norms; Risk management; NPA management
  • Financial markets: Money market; Capital market; Government securities market
  • Financial Institutions: Development Finance Institutions (DFIs); Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs); Mutual Funds; Pension Funds
  • Financial Regulators in India
  • Financial sector reforms including financial inclusion
  • Digitisation of banking and other financial services: Internet banking; mobile banking; Digital payments systems
  • Insurance: Types of insurance- Life and Non-life insurance; Risk classification and management; Factors limiting the insurability of risk; Re-insurance; Regulatory framework of insurance- IRDA and its role

Unit 8: Marketing Management

  • Marketing: Concept and approaches; Marketing channels; Marketing mix; Strategic marketing planning; Market segmentation, targeting and positioning
  • Product decisions: Concept; Product line; Product mix decisions; Product life cycle; New product development
  • Pricing decisions: Factors affecting price determination; Pricing policies and strategies
  • Promotion decisions: Role of promotion in marketing; Promotion methods –
  • Advertising; Personal selling; Publicity; Sales promotion tools and techniques; Promotion mix
  • Distribution decisions: Channels of distribution; Channel management
  • Consumer Behaviour; Consumer buying process; factors influencing consumer buying decisions
  • Service marketing
  • Trends in marketing: Social marketing; Online marketing; Green marketing; Direct marketing; Rural marketing; CRM
  • Logistics management

Unit 9: Legal Aspects of Business

  • Indian Contract Act, 1872: Elements of a valid contract; Capacity of parties; Free consent; Discharge of a contract; Breach of contract and remedies against breach; Quasi contracts;
  • Special contracts: Contracts of indemnity and guarantee; contracts of bailment and pledge; Contracts of agency
  • Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Sale and agreement to sell; Doctrine of Caveat Emptor; Rights of unpaid seller and rights of buyer
  • Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881: Types of negotiable instruments; Negotiation and assignment; Dishonour and discharge of negotiable instruments
  • The Companies Act, 2013: Nature and kinds of companies; Company formation; Management, meetings and winding up of a joint stock company
  • Limited Liability Partnership: Structure and procedure of formation of LLP in India
  • The Competition Act, 2002: Objectives and main provisions
  • The Information Technology Act, 2000: Objectives and main provisions; Cyber crimes and penalties
  • The RTI Act, 2005: Objectives and main provisions
  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) : Patents, trademarks and copyrights; Emerging issues in intellectual property
  • Goods and Services Tax (GST): Objectives and main provisions; Benefits of GST; Implementation mechanism; Working of dual GST

Unit 10: Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning

  • Income-tax: Basic concepts; Residential status and tax incidence; Exempted incomes; Agricultural income; Computation of taxable income under various heads; Deductions from Gross total income; Assessment of Individuals; Clubbing of incomes
  • International Taxation: Double taxation and its avoidance mechanism; Transfer pricing
  • Corporate Tax Planning: Concepts and significance of corporate tax planning; Tax avoidance versus tax evasion; Techniques of corporate tax planning; Tax considerations in specific business situations: Make or buy decisions; Own or lease an asset; Retain; Renewal or replacement of asset; Shut down or continue operations
  • Deduction and collection of tax at source; Advance payment of tax; E-filing of income-tax returns

UGC NET Commerce Syllabus 2023 In Hindi

यूजीसी नेट के वाणिज्य पाठ्यक्रम को दो पेपरों में विभाजित किया गया है। परीक्षा कंप्यूटर आधारित परीक्षा होगी जिसमें पेपर 1 में 50 बहुविकल्पीय प्रश्न होंगे जबकि पेपर 2 में 100 बहुविकल्पीय प्रश्न होंगे। यूजीसी नेट मार्किंग स्कीम के अनुसार, प्रत्येक प्रश्न में 2 अंक होते हैं और गलत उत्तरों के लिए कोई नकारात्मक अंकन नहीं होगा। UGC NET परीक्षा के दोनों पेपरों के बीच कोई ब्रेक नहीं होगा और परीक्षा की अवधि तीन घंटे होगी। नीचे महत्वपूर्ण NTA UGC NET कॉमर्स पाठ्यक्रम 2023 विषयों की जाँच करें।

  • यूनिट 1:व्यापार पर्यावरण और अंतर्राष्ट्रीय व्यापार।
  • यूनिट 2: लेखा और लेखा परीक्षा
  • यूनिट 3: व्यावसायिक अर्थशास्त्र
  • यूनिट 4: वयापार वित्त।
  • यूनिट 5: व्यापार सांख्यिकी और अनुसंधान के तरीके
  • यूनिट 6: व्यवसाय प्रबंधन और मानव संसाधन प्रबंधन
  • यूनिट 7: बैंकिंग और वित्तीय संस्थान
  • यूनिट 8: विपणन प्रबंधन
  • यूनिट 9: व्यवसाय के कानूनी पहलू
  • यूनिट 10: इनकम टैक्स और कॉर्पोरेट टैक्स प्लानिंग

Paper-Wise Weightage for UGC NET Commerce Syllabus

Candidates should check the weightage of all the papers covered in the UGC NET Commerce Syllabus and then start their preparation accordingly. Familiarity with the UGC NET Commerce exam pattern will help them to get close insights into the exam format, paper-wise number of questions, maximum marks, marking scheme, and much more as shared below.



Number of Questions

Maximum Marks

Marking Scheme

Paper 1

Teaching Aptitude, Research Aptitude, Reading Comprehension, Communication, Reasoning (including Maths), Logical Reasoning, Data Interpretation, Information & Communication Technology (ICT), People & Environment, and Higher Education System



+2 marks for the correct answer. No negative marking is applicable

Paper 2




+2 marks for the correct answer. No negative marking is applicable.

How do I prepare for UGC NET Commerce?

It is essential that you develop the best UGC NET Commerce strategy in order to maximize your chances of clearing the exam. To do so, first, comprehend the UGC NET Commerce syllabus and exam structure, and then create a study strategy based on that. This will assist in allocating a number of hours to each topic based on weightage and prior knowledge. Here is a collection of the most effective preparation strategies for the commerce section.

  • Analyze the UGC NET Commerce syllabus and exam pattern carefully before starting the preparation to cover only important topics from the exam perspective. 
  • If you pick up a topic such as Legal Aspects of Business, then you should learn the fundamentals first as it will help you to understand advanced-level topics easily.
  • Pick the best books and study material recommended by experts and previous toppers for better preparation.
  • Solve previous year’s question papers, UGC NET sample papers, and mock tests to figure out your strong and weak areas and improve the areas that require practice.
  • Create short notes for all the commerce topics as these notes are helpful in quick revision.

Best Books for UGC NET Commerce Syllabus

Candidates should get their hands on the expert-recommended UGC NET Commerce books based on the latest trends and formats. The right books will help them cover all the units mentioned in the UGC NET Commerce syllabus. Some of the best books for the UGC NET Commerce subject are shared below:

  • Business Environment and International Business by Sumati Varma
  • Accounting and Auditing by J. R. Monga
  • Business Finance by M.Y. Khan & P.K. Jain
  • Business Statistics and Research Methods by S. P. Gupta
  • Marketing Management by Philip Kotler
  • Business Economics by 12th class book of Microeconomics


Which books are best to cover the UGC NET Commerce syllabus?

Some of the best books to excel in the UGC NET Commerce syllabus are Business Environment and International Business by Sumati Varma, Accounting and Auditing by J. R. Monga, Business Finance by M.Y. Khan & P.K. Jain, and Business Statistics and Research Methods by S. P. Gupta

How difficult is the UGC NET exam in commerce?

As per the previous year’s exam analysis, the overall difficulty level of this commerce question has been reported to be moderate. Hence one can expect questions to be moderately difficult in the upcoming exam.

How to pass UGC NET exam in commerce?

To prepare well for UGC NET Commerce, candidates analyze the latest syllabus and exam pattern, choose highly recommended books to cover the concepts and attempt unlimited mock tests and previous years’ papers on the subject.

What is the UGC NET Commerce Syllabus?

The UGC NET Commerce Syllabus is divided into ten units as Business Environment and International Business, Accounting and Auditing, Business Economics, Business Finance, Business Statistics and Research Methods, Business Management and Human Resource Management, Banking and Financial Institutions, Marketing Management, Legal Aspects of Business, and Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning.

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